Database Internals

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Database Internals PDF

PDF NameDatabase Internals
Published/Updated On
Category
RegionGlobal
No. of Pages371
PDF Size12.02 MB
LanguageEnglish
Source(s) / CreditsOliPDF

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Database Internals PDF - Overview

Database Internals Distributed database systems are an integral part of most businesses and the vast majority of software applications. These applications provide logic and a user interface, while database systems take care of data integrity, consistency, and redundancy.

In 2000, if you were to choose a database, you would have just a few options, and most of them would be within the realm of relational databases, so differences between them would be relatively small. Of course, this does not mean that all databases were completely the same, but their functionality and use cases were very similar.

Database Internals

Here is the Table of Database Internals Contents.
Database Internals Part I. Storage Engines

  • 1. Introduction and Overview
    DBMS Architecture
    Memory- Versus Disk-Based DBMS
    Durability in Memory-Based Stores
    Column- Versus Row-Oriented DBMS
    Row-Oriented Data Layout
    Column-Oriented Data Layout
    Distinctions and Optimizations
    Wide Column Stores
    Data Files and Index Files
    Data Files
    Index Files
    Primary Index as an Indirection
    Buffering, Immutability, and Ordering
    Summary
  • 2. B-Tree Basics
    Binary Search Trees
    Tree Balancing
    Trees for Disk-Based Storage
    Disk-Based Structures
    Hard Disk Drives
    Solid State Drives
    On-Disk Structures
    Ubiquitous B-Trees
    B-Tree Hierarchy
    Separator Keys
    B-Tree Lookup Complexity
    B-Tree Lookup Algorithm
    Counting Keys
    B-Tree Node Splits
    B-Tree Node Merges
    Summary
  • 3. File Formats
    Motivation
    Binary Encoding
    Primitive Types
    Strings and Variable-Size Data
    Bit-Packed Data: Booleans, Enums, and Flags
    General Principles
    Page Structure
    Slotted Pages
    Cell Layout
    Combining Cells into Slotted Pages
    Managing Variable-Size Data
    Versioning
    Checksumming
    Summary
  • 4. Implementing B-Trees
    Page Header
    Magic Numbers
    Sibling Links
    Rightmost Pointers
    Node High Keys
    Overflow Pages
    Binary Search
    Binary Search with Indirection Pointers
    Propagating Splits and Merges
    Breadcrumbs
    Rebalancing
    Right-Only Appends
    Bulk Loading
    Compression
    Vacuum and Maintenance
    Fragmentation Caused by Updates and Deletes
    Page Defragmentation
    Summary
  • 5. Transaction Processing and Recovery
    Buffer Management
    Caching Semantics
    Cache Eviction
    Locking Pages in Cache
    Page Replacement
    Recovery
    Log Semantics
    Operation Versus Data Log
    Steal and Force Policies
    ARIES
    Concurrency Control
    Serializability
    Transaction Isolation
    Read and Write Anomalies
    Isolation Levels
    Optimistic Concurrency Control
    Multiversion Concurrency Control
    Pessimistic Concurrency Control
    Lock-Based Concurrency Control
    Summary
  • 6. B-Tree Variants
    Copy-on-Write
    Implementing Copy-on-Write: LMDB
    Abstracting Node Updates
    Lazy B-Trees
    WiredTiger
    Lazy-Adaptive Tree
    FD-Trees
    Fractional Cascading
    Logarithmic Runs
    Bw-Trees
    Update Chains
    Taming Concurrency with Compare-and-Swap
    Structural Modification Operations
    Consolidation and Garbage Collection
    Cache-Oblivious B-Trees
    van Emde Boas Layout
    Summary
  • 7. Log-Structured Storage
    LSM Trees
    LSM Tree Structure
    Updates and Deletes
    LSM Tree Lookups
    Merge-Iteration
    Reconciliation
    Maintenance in LSM Trees
    Read, Write, and Space Amplification
    RUM Conjecture
    Implementation Details
    Sorted String Tables
    Bloom Filters
    Skiplist
    Disk Access
    Compression
    Unordered LSM Storage
    Bitcask
    WiscKey
    Concurrency in LSM Trees
    Log Stacking
    Flash Translation Layer
    Filesystem Logging
    LLAMA and Mindful Stacking
    Open-Channel SSDs
    Summary
  • Part I Conclusion

Database Internals Part II. Distributed Systems

  • 8. Introduction and Overview
    Concurrent Execution
    Shared State in a Distributed System
    Fallacies of Distributed Computing
    Processing
    Clocks and Time
    State Consistency
    Local and Remote Execution
    Need to Handle Failures
    Network Partitions and Partial Failures
    Cascading Failures
    Distributed Systems Abstractions
    Links
    Two Generals’ Problem
    FLP Impossibility
    System Synchrony
    Failure Models
    Crash Faults
    Omission Faults
    Arbitrary Faults
    Handling Failures
    Summary
  • 9. Failure Detection
    Heartbeats and Pings
    Timeout-Free Failure Detector
    Outsourced Heartbeats
    Phi-Accural Failure Detector
    Gossip and Failure Detection
    Reversing Failure Detection Problem Statement
    Summary
  • 10. Leader Election
    Bully Algorithm
    Next-In-Line Failover
    Candidate/Ordinary Optimization
    Invitation Algorithm
    Ring Algorithm
    Summary
  • 11. Replication and Consistency
    Achieving Availability
    Infamous CAP
    Use CAP Carefully
    Harvest and Yield
    Shared Memory
    Ordering
    Consistency Models
    Strict Consistency
    Linearizability
    Sequential Consistency
    Causal Consistency
    Session Models
    Eventual Consistency
    Tunable Consistency
    Witness Replicas
    Strong Eventual Consistency and CRDTs
    Summary
  • 12. Anti-Entropy and Dissemination
    Read Repair
    Digest Reads
    Hinted Handoff
    Merkle Trees
    Bitmap Version Vectors
    Gossip Dissemination
    Gossip Mechanics
    Overlay Networks
    Hybrid Gossip
    Partial Views
    Summary
  • 13. Distributed Transactions
    Making Operations Appear Atomic
    Two-Phase Commit
    Cohort Failures in 2PC
    Coordinator Failures in 2PC
    Three-Phase Commit
    Coordinator Failures in 3PC
    Distributed Transactions with Calvin
    Distributed Transactions with Spanner
    Database Partitioning
    Consistent Hashing
    Distributed Transactions with Percolator
    Coordination Avoidance
    Summary
  • 14. Consensus
    Broadcast
    Atomic Broadcast
    Virtual Synchrony
    Zookeeper Atomic Broadcast (ZAB)
    Paxos
    Paxos Algorithm
    Quorums in Paxos
    Failure Scenarios
    Multi-Paxos
    Fast Paxos
    Egalitarian Paxos
    Flexible Paxos
    Generalized Solution to Consensus
    Raft
    Leader Role in Raft
    Failure Scenarios
    Byzantine Consensus
    PBFT Algorithm
    Recovery and Checkpointing
    Summary
  • Part II Conclusion
  • A. Bibliography
  • Index
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