# Noise Figure or Factor

## Noise Figure or Factor PDF

PDF Name Noise Figure or Factor May 30, 2022 Education Global 63 0.72 MB English download.tek.com

## Noise Figure or Factor PDF – Overview

Noise Figure or Factor, or more specifically the voltage and current fluctuations caused by the random motion of charged particles, exists in all electronic systems. An understanding of noise and how it propagates through a system is a particular concern in RF and microwave receivers that must extract information from extremely small signals.

Noise added by circuit elements can conceal or obscure low-level signals, adding impairments to voice or video reception, uncertainty to bit detection in digital systems and cause radar errors.

Measuring the noise contributions of circuit elements, in the form of noise factor or noise figure is an important task for RF and microwave engineers. This paper, along with its associated appendices presents an overview of noise measurement methods, with detailed emphasis on the Y-factor method and its associated measurement uncertainties.

### Noise Figure or Factor

Contents of Noise Figure or Factor PDF

• Noise Measurements
• Noise Factor, Noise Figure And Noise Temperature
• Active Device
• Passive Devices
• Noise Figure or Factor Of Cascaded Stages
• Effective Noise Temperature Of Cascaded Stages
• Noise Figure Measurements
• Y-Factor Method
• Cold Source Or Network Analyzer Method
• Signal Generator (Twice Power) Method
• Direct Noise Measurement Method
• Noise Figure or Factor Measurements In Frequency Converters
• Frequency Converters With Image Rejection
• Image-Reject Filter Included In The Measurement
• Image-Reject Filter Excluded In The Measurement
• The Nature Of Random Noise
• Thermal Noise
• Power Spectral Density Of Thermal Noise
• Shot Noise
• Noise
• Noise Power Spectral Density Graph
• Noise In Electronic Components
• Resistors
• Capacitors
• Inductors
• Active Devices
• Conclusion
• Noise Figure or Factor
• Overview Of Noise Measurement Methods
• Appendices
• Appendix 1: Noise Of A Resistor, Capacitor And Inductor
• Resistors
• Capacitors
• Piezoelectric Effects In Capacitors
• Inductors
• Appendix 2: Shot Noise
• Computing Shot Noise
• Derivation Assuming A Poisson Distribution
• Appendix 3: Bandwidth Equivalent Of Averaging
• Appendix 4: Avalanche Diode Noise Sources
• Avalanche Breakdown
• Noise Mechanism
• A Practical Noise Source
• Appendix 5: Error Analysis Of The Y-Factor Method
• Y-Factor Measurements
• Noise Factor Of A Measurement Receiver
• Uncertainty In Noise Factor Measurements
• Sensitivities To Measurement Errors
• Computing The Sensitivities For Device Gain
• Sensitivity Of To Power Measurement Errors
• Computing The Gain Sensitivities To The Power Measurement Errors
• Summary Of Errors
• Errors In Measuring Noise Factor
• Errors In Measuring Device Gain
• Statistical Distribution Of Measurement Errors
• Enr
• Mismatch Errors
• Coverage Factor
• Example Of Contributions To Noise Figure Measurement

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