Surah Baqarah PDF - Overview
Surah Baqarah – Al-Baqara, alternatively transliterated Al-Baqarah, is the second and longest chapter (surah) of the Quran. It consists of 286 verses (āyāt) which begin with the “mysterious letters” A.L.M. In recitation the names of the letters are used, not their sounds.
The surah encompasses a variety of topics and contains several commands for Muslims such as enjoining fasting on the believer during the month of Ramadan forbidding interest or usury (riba) and several famous verses such as The Throne Verse, Al-Baqara 256, and the final two or three verses.
The surah addresses a wide variety of topics, including substantial amounts of law, and retells stories of Adam, Ibrahim (Abraham) and Musa (Moses). Al-Baqara is believed by Muslims to have been revealed at Medina over a long period after the Hijrah, with the exception of the riba verses which Muslims believe were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last Hajj of Muhammad.
In particular, verse 281 in this chapter is believed to be the last verse of the Quran to be revealed, on the 10th of Dhul al Hijjah 10 A.H., when Muhammad was in the course of performing his last Hajj, 80 or 90 days before he died.
Summary of Surah Baqarah
- 1-20 Unbelievers and hypocrites reproved
- 21-38 Exhortation to the worship of the true God
- 39-102 Jews and Christians urged to accept the claim of Muhammad to be a prophet of God
- 102-112 The opposition of Jews and Christians to Muhammad’s prophetic pretensions combated
- 113 The doctrine of abrogation enunciated
- 115 A Qibla declared to be redundant
- 116-141 The Jews denounced and the religion of Abraham declared to be the true Islam
- 142-153 The Jews finally abandoned and the Arabs accepted by the adoption of Makkah as the Qibla of Islam
- 154-163 The Bereaved friends of those slain at the Battle of Badr comforted
- 164-172 Makkans exhorted to faith in God, and directed to observe the law respecting forbidden meats
- 173-176 Law concerning lawful and unlawful food (delivered at Madina)
- 177 The sum of Muslim duty
- 178-179 The law of retaliation
- 180-182 The law concerning bequests
- 183-185 The law concerning fasting
- 186-187 The fast of Ramadan
- 188-202 The pilgrimage to Makkah and war for the faith
- 203-206 Hypocrites and true believers contrasted
- 207-208 Exhortation to a hearty acceptance of Islam
- 209 The doom of infidels pronounced
- 210-212 The Jews reproached
- 213 Suffering to be patiently endured
- 214-242 Sundry laws relating to almsgiving, war, wine, orphans etc.
- 243-253 The duty of warring in defence of religion enjoined by precept, and illustrated by the history of former prophets
- 255 The Throne Verse
- 256-257 Laa ikraha fid deen.
- 258-260 The doctrine of the resurrection illustrated
- 261-274 Exhortation and encouragement to almsgiving
- 275-277 Usury forbidden
- 278-283 Debts in Islam including the longest verse in the Quran
- 284-286 The three verses of Paradise.